Performance bottlenecks can lead an otherwise functional computer or server to slow down to a crawl. The term “bottleneck” refers to both an overloaded network and the state of a computing device in which one component is unable to keep pace with the rest of the system, thus slowing overall performance. Addressing bottleneck issues usually results in returning the system to operable performance levels; however, fixing bottleneck issues requires first identifying the underperforming component.
A memory bottleneck implies that the system does not have sufficient or fast enough RAM. This situation cuts the speed at which the RAM can serve information to the CPU, which slows overall operations. In cases where the system doesn’t have enough memory, the computer will start offloading storage to a significantly slower HDD or SSD to keep things running. Alternatively, if the RAM cannot serve data to the CPU fast enough, the device will experience both slowdown and low CPU usage rates.
Resolving the issue typically involves installing higher capacity and/or faster RAM. In cases where the existing RAM is too slow, it needs to be replaced, whereas capacity bottlenecks can be dealt with simply by adding more memory. In other cases, the problem may stem from a programming error called a “memory leak,” which means a program is not releasing memory for system use again when done using it. Resolving this issue requires a program fix.
Network bottlenecks occur when the communication between two devices lacks the necessary bandwidth or processing power to complete a task quickly. According to Microsoft, network bottlenecks occur when there’s an overloaded server, an overburdened network communication device, and when the network itself loses integrity. Resolving network utilization issues typically involves upgrading or adding servers, as well as upgrading network hardware like routers, hubs, and access points.
Sometimes bottleneck-related performance dips originate from the software itself. In some cases, programs can be built to handle only a finite number of tasks at once so the program won’t utilize any additional CPU or RAM assets even when available. Additionally, a program may not be written to work with multiple CPU streams, thus only utilizing a single core on a multicore processor. These issues are resolved through rewriting and patching software.